public final class TimeIdGenerator extends Object
Generates a unique ID made out of the current time in milliseconds, combined with a thread-safe atomic sequence value that guarantees order and uniqueness within the same JVM.
This class was created for cases where unique sequential IDs are required
long are desired for things such as faster lookup
and generation (over large strings for instance) and you can't use a
persistent sequence generator.
If you do not have such need, it is best advised to use a
universal id generator instead, like java
At a minimum, values generated by this
class ensures uniqueness within JVM instances (read
Year 2262 and beyond further down).
If you need larger or different values to ensure greater
uniqueness between many JVMs,
you can convert the returned value to a string and simply
prefix it with a value of your choice (or convert to a
if your can support larger numbers).
To obtain universally unique IDs, consider using a UUID implementation,
like the Java
IDs generated within a single JVM are guaranteed to be in order with no duplicates (read Year 2262 and beyond further down). The sequence usually has many gaps.
Generated IDs are
long primitives. Java
are 64-bit whereas standard UUID are byte arrays of 128-bit
(plus the array reference itself). When using UUIDs in their common
hexadecimal string format, they usually are at least 576-bit (plus the
The reduced byte size of
long values compared to most strings
may lead to lookup performance, in
addition of some system sorting primitive numbers faster than strings.
While not especially optimized for ID generation, creating
IDs is much faster than most string-based approach. For instance, this class
is typically more than 20 times faster at generating
than Java UUID at generating strings.
An average desktop computer can show it takes less than 50 milliseconds to
generate 1 million IDs (single thread).
Be advised this implementation does not account for the possibility of a backward UTC time change on the host system clock (as opposed to "local" time which can change without issues as long as UTC time is unaffected).
Assuming your application and underlying platform can achieve this feat, a maximum of 1 million unique IDs can be generated every milliseconds (1 billion IDs per seconds). Every time that threshold is reached, the method will wait until the current time has progressed to the next millisecond to prevent ID duplication (waiting 1 nanosecond at a time).
long values can hold 19 characters. Each digit is part
of one of two groups of digits with a specific purpose.
The exact pattern is the following:
Java long max value: 9223372036854775808 ------------------------------------------ Current time (ms): 9223372036854 <--- max value Atomic sequence: 999999 <--- max value
This class is thread-safe.
Whenever the millisecond EPOCH representation of the current time reaches
1e14, the time representation starts back at 0ms using a modulo between
the current time and 1e14. The first time this will occur is when the
system UTC clock time reaches April 11th, 2262. The moment
rollback of the current time value occurs, new IDs will be smaller
long values than IDs generated prior to that date.
If you only care about uniqueness, your IDs will still be unique unless
you have been generating IDs using this class for close to 300 years or more.
|Modifier and Type||Method and Description|
Returns the last generated number since the start of this JVM (that value is not persisted anywhere outside the JVM memory).
Generates a new number unique within this JVM.
public static long last()
next()at least once will return
public static long next()
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